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    電導率單位_電導率的定義概念

    時間:2019-01-26  來源:第九閱讀網  作者:佚名  有:人讀過該文章

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    電導率的定義概念

    電導率是物質傳送電流的能力,是 電阻率的倒數。在液體中常以電阻的倒數――電導來衡量其導電能力的大小。水的電導是衡量水質的一個很重要的指標。它能反映出水中存在的電解質的程度。根據水溶液中電解質的濃度不同,則溶液導電的程度也不同。通過測定溶液的導電度來分析電解質在溶解中的溶解度。這就是 電導率儀的基本分析方法。

    溶液的電導率與離子的種類有關。同樣濃度電解質,它們的電導率也不一樣。通常是強酸的電導率最大,強堿和它與強酸生成的鹽類次之,而弱酸和弱堿的電導率最小。因此,通過對水的電導的測定,對水質的概況就有了初步的了解。電導率 電阻率的倒數即稱之為電導率L。在液體中常以電阻的倒數――電導來衡量其導電能力的大小。電導L的計算式如下式所示: L=l/R=S/l電導的單位用姆歐又稱西門子。用S表示,由于S單位太大。常采用毫西門子,微西門子單位1S=103mS=106μS。

     

    1. 當量電導

    液體的電導僅說明溶液的導電性能與幾何尺寸間的關系,未體現出溶液濃度與電性能的關系。為了能區分各種介質組成溶液的導電性能,必須在電導率的要領 引入濃度的關系,這就提出了當量電導的概念。所謂的當量電導就是指把1g當量電解質的溶液全部置于相距為1cm的兩板間的溶液的電導,符號“λ”。由于在電導率的基礎上引入了濃度的概念。因此各種水溶液的導電來表示和比較了。在水質監測中,一般通過對溶液電導的測量可掌握水中所溶解的總無機鹽類的濃度指標。

     

    2. 溫度 對電導的影響

    溶液的電阻是隨溫度升高而減小,即溶液的濃度一定時,它的電導率隨著溫度的升高而增加,其增加的幅度約為2%℃-1。另外同一類的電解質,當濃度不同時,它的溫度系數也不一樣。在低濃度時,電導率的溫度之間的關系用下式表示: L1=L0[1+α(t-t0)+β(t-t0)2]由于第二項β(t-t0)2之值較小,可忽略不計。在低溫時的電導率與溫度的關系可用以下近似值L1=L0[1+α(t-t0)]表示,因此實際測量時必須加入溫度補償。

     

    3. 電導率的定義 
        電導率是物質傳送電流的能力,是電阻率的倒數。在液體中常以電阻的倒數――電導來衡量其導電能力的大小。水的電導是衡量水質的一個很重要的指標。它能反映出水中存在的電解質的程度。根據水溶液中電解質的濃度不同,則溶液導電的程度也不同。通過測定溶液的導電度來分析電解質在溶解中的溶解度。這就是電導儀的基本分析方法。 
        溶液的電導率與離子的種類有關。同樣濃度電解質,它們的電導率也不一樣。通常是強酸的電導率最大,強堿和它與強酸生成的鹽類次之,而弱酸和弱堿的電導率最小。因此,通過對水的電導的測定,對水質的概況就有了初步的了解。  
        電導率 
        電阻率的倒數即稱之為電導率L。在液體中常以電阻的倒數――電導來衡量其導電能力的大小。電導L的計算式如下式所示:L=l/R=S/l  
        電導的單位用姆歐又稱西門子。用S表示,由于S單位太大。常采用毫西門子,微西門子單位1S=103mS=106μS。  
        當量電導 
        液體的電導僅說明溶液的導電性能與幾何尺寸間的關系,未體現出溶液濃度與電性能的關系。為了能區分各種介質組成溶液的導電性能,必須在電導率的要領 引入濃度的關系,這就提出了當量電導的概念。 
        所謂的當量電導就是指把1g當量電解質的溶液全部置于相距為1cm的兩板間的溶液的電導,符號"λ"。由于在電導率的基礎上引入了濃度的概念。因此各種水溶液的導電來表示和比較了。 
        在水質監測中,一般通過對溶液電導的測量可掌握水中所溶解的總無機鹽類的濃度指標。  
        溫度對電導的影響 
        溶液的電阻是隨溫度升高而減小,即溶液的濃度一定時,它的電導率隨著溫度的升高而增加,其增加的幅度約為2%℃-1。另外同一類的電解質,當濃度不同時,它的溫度系數也不一樣。在低濃度時,電導率的溫度之間的關系用下式表示:L1=L0[1+α(t-t0)+β(t-t0)2]由于第二項β(t-t0)2之值較小,可忽略不計。在低溫時的電導率與溫度的關系可用以下近似值L1=L0[1+α(t-t0)]表示,因此實際測量時必須加入溫度補償。 
       電導的溫度系數 
        對于大多數離子,電導率的溫度系數大約為+1.4%℃-1~3%℃-1對于H+和OH-離子,電導率溫度系數分別為1.5%℃-1和 1.8%℃-1,這個數值相對于電導率測量的準確度要求,一般為1%或優于1%,是不容忽視的。 
      純水的電導率 
        即使在純水中也存在著H+和OH-兩種離子,經常說,純水是電的不良導體,但是嚴格地說水仍是一種很弱的電解質,它存在如下的電離平衡: 
        H2O←→H++OH或2H2O←→H3+O+OH- 
       其平衡常數: 
       KW=[H+].[OH-]/H2O=10-14  
       式中KW稱為水的離子積 
        [H+]2=[OH-]2=10-14 
        ∴[H+]2=[OH-]2=10-7 
        lH2O,0=λOH-,0=349.82+198.6=548.42S/cm.mol2 
        已知水的密度d25℃/H2O=0.9970781cm3 
        故原有假設為1的水分離子濃度只能達到0.99707。實際上是僅0.99707份額的水離解成0.99707.10-7的[H+]和[OH-],那么離解后的[H+]和[OH-]電導率的總和KH2O用下式求出: 
        KH2O=CM/1000λH2O  
        =(0.99707.10-7/1000).548.42 
        =0.05468μS.cm-1≈0.054μS.cm-1 
        ∴ρH2O=1/KH2O=1/0.05468×10-9 
        =18.29(MΩ.cm)≈18.3(MΩ.cm) 
        由水的離子積為10-14可推算出理論上的高純水的極限電導為0.0547μS.cm-1,電阻為18.3MΩ.cm(25℃)。 
        水的電導率的溫度系數在不同電導率范圍有不同的溫度系數。對于常用的1μS.cm-1的蒸餾水而言大約為+2.5%-1

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