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  • 朱自清《背影》的教學反思

    時間:2019-01-22  來源:第九閱讀網  作者:朱自清  有:人讀過該文章

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    《背影》是現代作家朱自清于1925年所寫的一篇回憶性散文。朱自清的散文《背影》以其感情真摯自然見長。“綴文者情動而辭發,觀文者披文以入情。”哪些角度易于學生領悟文中滲透的父慈子孝的真情呢?筆者試從以下三個方面淺談看法。

    (一)抓住背影

    文章的標題是“背影”,父親給作者留下深刻印象的也是背影,背影在文中多次出現,可以視作貫穿文章的主線。“背影的表現角度能集中反映出描寫對象的內在精神”(凌煥新),分析課文時,抓住背影,也就抓住了理解本文的關鍵。多年來,大家都喜歡從這一角度入手來解讀課文,筆者不作贅述。

    (二)分析流淚

    古人云:“男兒有淚不輕彈”,可細心的讀者不難發現,文中竟然出現四次流淚,是什么原因使得堂堂男兒的朱自清先生數次淚流滿面呢?從這一角度引導學生把握課文,易引起學生興趣,使學生帶著疑問開始對文本的解讀。

    第一次流淚出現于課文第二節,“到徐州見著父親,看見滿院狼藉的東西,又想起祖母,不禁簌簌的流下眼淚。”父親賦閑,家道衰落,“滿院狼藉”的景象引起作者的感傷,再加上失去親人的傷痛,百感交集,“不禁簌簌的流下眼淚”。

    當作者看到父親為自己買橘子時的艱難身影,流下了第二次眼淚。“我看見他戴著黑布小帽,穿著黑布大馬褂,深青布棉袍,蹣跚地走到鐵道邊,慢慢探身下去,尚不大難。可是他穿過鐵道,要爬上那邊月臺,就不容易了。他用兩手攀著上面,兩腳再向上縮;他肥胖的身子向左微傾,顯出努力的樣子。”父親的艱難與父愛的偉大,使得作者的淚“很快地流了下來”。

    “等他的背影混入來來往往的人里,再找不著了,我便進來坐下,我的眼淚又來了。”分別后,不知何時才能相見,慢慢混入人群中的父親,從此又要走上風雨飄搖的人生之路。不難看出,離別的傷感與對父親的牽掛,是作者第三次流淚的原因。

    “我身體平安,惟膀子疼痛厲害,舉箸提筆,諸多不便,大約大去之期不遠矣。”讀著父親的來信,買橘子的蹣跚身影,離別時漸行漸遠、混入人群的背影,衣著樸素、青布棉袍黑布馬褂的背影,又浮現在作者眼前。淚光晶瑩中分明透露出作者對年邁父親的記掛與惦念。

    現實生活中,好多人可能并沒有體會到父母對自己的關愛,因為這種基于血緣關系之上的感情不是轟轟烈烈、驚天動地的,它蘊含在平凡和瑣碎之中,如果不用心去感受的話,很容易被我們忽略掉。作者從埋怨父親“說話不大漂亮”,并“暗笑他的迂”,到數次淚流滿面,可以看出,在不斷反省中作者體悟到了父愛的珍貴,并接受了這珍貴的愛,將其傾訴于筆端,我們今天才讀到了這感人至深的文字。從四次流淚入手來解讀課文,抓住了文章的感情線索,便于學生更好地體會字里行間滲透的父子真情。

    (三)對比服裝

    “衣服是人的第一生存環境”,從著裝可以看出一個人對自我的關心程度。父親穿著很樸素,“戴著黑布小帽,穿著黑布大馬褂,深青布棉袍”,布料廉價,顏色普通。祖母去世,父親賦閑,在這禍不單行的日子,就連給腳夫的小費,父親也要講價,家境慘淡可見一斑。然而,就是在這種情況下,外出讀書的朱自清先生,穿的是皮大衣,父親為兒子做的是紫毛大衣,很貴重,也很時髦。通過父子服裝的對比,不言自明:父親對兒子的關愛遠遠勝過自己。從父子服裝對比這一角度來分析課文,學生可以直觀地感受到父親對兒子的關愛。

    以上三個角度,各有優缺。前兩個角度,傾向于作者對父愛的感受與理解,能夠讓學生體會到父親對兒子的關愛以及兒子對父愛的感悟的雙向性。從第三個角度,學生感受到的是父親對兒子的單向的關愛,而兒子對父愛的理解、接受,以及對父親的關愛與牽掛不容易看出。但是,初一的學生,對父愛的感受還不夠深刻,還不能很好地理解父愛的深沉。因此,從這一點來說,從服裝對比入手來解讀課文,更直觀,更容易被學生接受。如何選擇,這就要求我們在實際的教學中,根據學生情況、教師自身特長等加以確定。

    版權聲明:以上文章中所選用的圖片及文字來源于網絡以及用戶投稿,由于未聯系到知識產權人或未發現有關知識產權的登記,如有知識產權人并不愿意我們使用,如果有侵權請立即聯系我們,我們立即下架或刪除。

    (責任編輯:沙拉美優)

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